An Early Look at Google Pixel 2

In 2016, Google brought a whole new excitement into the mobile phone market with the Google Pixel.
The phone was properly marketed and its unique selling point was the advanced camera. It made its way into the market and it was accepted by quite a number of people although it wasn’t strong enough to affect the prevailing giants such as Apple’s iPhone and Samsung Galaxy.
There are some people who believe the Google’s Pixel sales didn’t cut into the market share of Samsung and Apple for a very simple reason: the design!

What is more astonishing is the fact that the design didn’t cost more than $650!

Can you imagine that?
According to many critics in the industry, Google’s breaking away from the Android world was a creative and impressive step. This was what put high expectations on the tech gurus and we are waiting for an upgrade. This upgrade is a new phone and we expect to see it this year.The gurus are looking at Apple to see their mistakes and progress and how others can learn from them. The critics and gurus follow each step taken by Apple to know the improvement on the iPhone and find faults which they can improve on. The truth is critics will do the same thing to Google.

What should we expect from Google Pixel 2?
The first thing I believe we should expect is a waterproof phone! This is the biggest trend in the industry as we found this in the iPhone 7 and Samsung Galaxy S7. Many people (especially me) are expecting to see a Pixel which would be dust and water proof. Although we didn’t see this in the previous models but we are expecting this upgrade in the Pixel 2.There are also reports that Google will upgrade the camera. Even though it has one of the best cameras in the Smartphone world, there are reports that the company will produce a phone that will improve the camera’s ability and bring a whole new features for this phone.The price of this phone will increase. 9to5Google says that the upgrades built in the phone would require a higher price to justify the upgrades.

For countries outside North America, the Pixel Phones they may see might be the lower end ones which are the phones Google is test running. These ones will have lesser features when compared to those found in North America. The lesser end phones will come at a lesser price than those found in the US.I think it would be a good idea if the lower end phones were also introduced to North America as well. This means different classes of people would be able to purchase the phone which will give Google a larger market share.


This intended result can be recreated by repeating the messages which is referred to as a collision attack. The Hash-based Message Authentication Code also known as the HMAC can also deal with collision attacks by including 2 properly calculated values called the 'opid' and 'ipid'. From the onset, these 2 are analyzed with the help of a secret key for the first packet and then reanalyzed again for other packets. The values gotten from these analyses are recorded after each packet. It is then regained to be used to calculate the digest for the subsequent packets. This is what makes the digest dissimilar even if the packets are similar. This is what you need when you are trying to create a Digital Certificates:




Another thing we can expect is more power. There are reports that say Google will be using a higher-powered Snapdragon chip.


The first model was run by a Qualcomm Snapdragon 821 and we might be seeing a Snapdragon 830 this time or the 835 processor


There isn't much information on the size of the Pixel XL 2. Although many people may not be able to recognize an original Pixel XL,


Although I think it might be interesting to see how many phones will be coming into the market at the same time. I think we should expect

Google may also use Intel chips for this phone.

Google Pixel has become a prime phone for all things Android. It is also the first phone to release the Android Nougat. The latest version might just be the Android 0 (8.0) and there will be other upgrades on this path. I don't think Google is keen on the size of the phone especially since Apple had rebounding success with iPhone 7 Plus with all its many features. So when should we expect to see the Pixel 2? I think it should be anytime from fall which would be about a year after the release of the first version. To see the iPhone 8, Samsung Galaxy S8, and LG G6 will be flooding the market around the same time.

Digital Signatures and Certificates

When you hear

When you hear of the word VPN, the first thing we think of is the encrypting of the user data although hackers usually think of decoding the user data. A hacker can record the user's data and then repeat the messages to other participants.

Digital Signature

To create a Digital Signature, you must set in place public key encryption systems. It also involves adding a hash function to the message by linking the message with a well known secret key before you use an arithmetic equation


Our own responsibility is to be able to figure out the genuine source of data and this is where we need Digital Signature and Certificates to get something called the digest which produces a fixed length output.

Decryption Key

Next, the digest is encrypted or encoded with a public decryption key. This key creates a Signature that can be added to the message to distinguish the source of all messages. The recipient recalculates the hash function and contrasts it with the Signatureafter adding the public key. When these two connect, the message is authentic. This is because it is only the encoder that can identify the private key and hash function. Message Digest Algorithms (MDA) also uses the Hash function to identify all the potential inputs and connect them to a large number of outputs. At least a hundred bits is usually formed at a fixed length field. An undisclosed key is divided between the recipient and the sender and by linking this with a message meant to be transferred when the digest is created.It is this bio-data that is added to the public key before it is used as a piece of the hash function to produce the digest. The digest is encrypted with a private key with the aid of a protected encryption system like the AES or RSA. A Digital Certificate can be authenticated by undergoing the public encryption process with the public key for the user to get the digest. This can easily be weighed against the analysis of the digest from the claimed personality of the user and their public key. If the 2 analyses give the same result it means the Certificates is true. Digital Certificates are added to messages to verify the validity of the source of the message. Name Address Mother's maiden name House number National Insurance number or any other related information.

The Message Digest 5 popularly called the MD5 is the commonest kind of hash function that is used. This will in turn create a 128bit digest that is usually added to the header before the transmission of the packet. If there is a change in the message, there will also be a change in the digest. The destination IP address and source can be used along with the digest which authenticates the addresses. Secure Hash Algorithm also known as SHA is a common popular hashing algorithm that creates a 160 bit digest which guarantees higher level of security than the MD5.

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